Reading : Fill in the Blanks – In the text below some words are missing. Select words from the box below to the appropriate place in the text. This item type assesses reading skills.
Q1) Animals have played a major role in human’s lives throughout history. Today, scientific research is trying to ______ the positive aspects of living with companion animals. Animals have been used as an ______________ form of treatment for many years. More recently it has been discovered that owning a pet can help lower people’s blood pressure, _____________ the chances of living after a heart attack, keep people more active and provide more satisfaction with life. It is _________________ that this happens because pets help people become more social, provide a means to give and receive __________________, and help connect us with the natural world.
decisions, enhance, affection, different, discover, theorized, alternative
Q2) Read the given text and fill in the blanks -2
The poem “The Road Not Taken” by Robert Frost is about the _________ that one makes in life. It tells about a man who comes to a ____________ in the road he is travelling upon. He feels __________ that he cannot travel ________ paths as he must choose one. Frost uses this fork in the road to represent a point in the man’s life where he has to choose the _________ he wishes to take in life.
sorry, forsee, choices, pleasant, direction, both, trail, fork
Q3) Montego Bay is the second largest city in Jamaica by area and the third by population. It is a lively and ________ beach resort and attracts a lot of tourists from many different countries with its __________ beaches and __________________ relaxing atmosphere. Many Americans and Europeans, as well as Jamaicans, have summer homes in Montego Bay, so it is a __________ city and becomes more _________ during the holiday seasons. It is most famous for Doctor’s Cave beach, which has clear, turquoise waters.
peaceful, polluted, cosmopolitan, bustling, facilities, crowded, hospital, sandy
Q4) Read the given text and fill in the blanks -4
High emotional intelligence can help a manager ________ workplace communication skills, employee motivation and organisational effectiveness. If a manager has high ______ , a key component of emotional intelligence, he or she will be able to _______ to the concerns of employees and will be more understanding of their needs, wants and concerns. This will most likely translate into _______ motivation and satisfaction of employees and ultimately will have a _____ effect on the effectiveness of the business.
listen, empathy, determiner, improve, employed , positive, increased
Q5) Read the given text and choose words from the box below to fill the gaps.
Mary, Queen of Scots was one of the most ________ and controversial monarchs of 16th century Europe. ________ the Queen of Scotland when she was only six days old, Mary was the last Roman Catholic ruler in Scotland. King Henry VIII of England wanted Mary to marry his son Edward. Mary was sent to France at the age of 6 to _______ her from Henry VIII. She was _______ at the French court and married Francis the Dauphin of France at the age of 16. When Francis became King a year later, Mary was named Queen of France. Unfortunately, Francis died soon after. When Mary‟s mother died, she returned to Scotland to rule as Queen.
However, she did not have the political ________ to successfully rule Scotland. In 1568, she _______ to England, hoping that her cousin Queen Elizabeth would help. Instead of helping her, Queen Elizabeth imprisoned Mary. Mary was imprisoned for nineteen years.
In 1587, at the age of forty-four, Mary was executed. The English government had all of her ________ burned.
skills, educated, possessions, protect, escaped, fascinating, companion, stuff, crowned
Q6). Read the given text and choose words from the box below to fill the gaps.
The Pitcairn Islands are ___________ in the South Pacific Ocean, about halfway between Peru and New Zealand. The larger island of Pitcairn was ___________ in 1767 by the British and settled in 1790 by the mutineers from the English ship ‘Bounty’ and their Tahitian companions. Pitcairn was the first Pacific island to become a British colony (in 1838) and today remains the last __________ of the British empire in the South Pacific. The population of about 50 are the __________ of the Bounty __________ and their Tahitian wives.
English is the official language, but many islanders ______________ in Pitcairnese (a pidgin language comprising of elements of 18th century English and a Tahitian dialect).
vestige, embed, descendants, save, communicate, discovered, confidant, located, important, produced, mutineers
Q7). Read the given text and choose words from the box below to fill the gaps.
Three thousand head of bawling Hereford cattle were being _____ from little grassy patches and wooded breaks up in Togwotee Pass country.
The cool mountain air was ______ free from the swarms of biting flies and gnats that would have _____ them miserable at the lower elevations and the high meadows had made the red and white cattle sleek and fat ______ the spring and summer.
Fall was ______ to the northern Wyoming mountains at the southern edge of the Absaroka range. It was time to push the animals back into the low country for the shelter of the valleys and the grass that had ______ there during the long summer days.
kept, coming, collected, grown, high, moved, relatively, during
Q8) Fill in each gap from list of options given below.
Every year thousands of people travel to Britain in order to improve their standard of English. For many, however, this can be a (1) ……. experience due to the fact that it involves (2) ……. a strange school, staying in sometimes unpleasant accommodation and living in an unfamiliar culture.
(1) a) sore b) aching c) sick d) painful
(2) a) attending b) going c) studying d) learning
One (3) ……. to these problems is the Home-stay method. With this, students are each assigned a teacher (4) ……. to their language requirements and interests. As well as giving individual tuition, the teacher (5) …….. the student with information about what activities are available locally and (6) ….… them on trips.
(3) a) requirement b) answer c) argument d) reaction
(4) a) expecting b) matching c) suited d) prepared
(5) a) advises b) provides c) offers d) suggests
(6) a) goes b) takes c) brings d) carries
Students get between ten and twenty hours of tuition a week and are also expected to (7) …… in the family’s daily activities. The students speak English at all times and therefore learn how to use the language in everyday (8) ….. Home-stay programs usually (9) …… for up to four weeks. Although costs are higher than of regular language schools, students can feel (10) …… that they will be receiving top-class language teaching in a safe and pleasant environment.
(7) a) do b) join c) attach d) connect
(8) a) positions b) chances c) situations d) occasions
(9) a) pass b) stay c) remain d) last
(10) a) confident b) reliable c) self-assured d) satisfactory
Q9) Read the given text and choose words from the box to fill the gaps.
| devised | formulate | arbitrary | impact | similar | summary | usage | vertical | designed
1. Although not exactly identical, the two books are so _________ to each other that one author must have copied much of his book from the other.
2. The Prime Minister set up a committee of financial experts to help him discuss and ___________ new policies.
3. In 1990, the British researcher Tim Berners-Lee ____________ the first browser, and so paved the way for the development of the World Wide Web.
4. In newspapers, the layout of the columns is ___________, while the rows run across the page horizontally.
5. The rise in the number of deaths from AIDS has had a very significant __________ on people’s sexual behaviour.
6. Students should not try to write down everything they hear in a lecture, but just make a ___________ of the most important points.
Q10). Read the given text and choose words from the box to fill the gaps.
| assigned | context | criteria | data | represent | denote | ignored | overlooked
7. We use the term “class” to ____________ groups of people who share the same social and economic backgrounds.
8. The new journalist was _____________ to researching the election promises of the main political parties.
9. Before we can judge a government’s success, we have to decide the ____________, such as unemployment, defence or taxation.
10. One student failed because he completely ___________ the instructions on the paper, although they appeared at the top of every page.
11. Market researchers use ______________ such as people’s spending patterns as well as information about age and occupation to decide on the most effective marketing strategies.
Q11) Read the given text and choose words from the box to fill the gaps.
significant insight appropriate
equally analyzed characteristics demonstrate
Drinking practices vary (1)________ among different countries. An understanding of such differences can help researchers, clinicians, and policymakers develop prevention, diagnostic,and treatment measures as well as overall alcohol policies that are (2)________ for a given country. Accordingly, researchers have conducted cross- cultural analyses of drinking patterns and practices.
Three countries included in such analyses are India, Mexico, and Nigeria. These countries differ substantially in their ethnic and cultural (3)_________, including the role that alcohol plays in daily life. To gain a better (4)________ into the attitudes toward alcohol in these countries, researchers have (5)________ the alcoholic beverage preferences, gender and age differences in alcohol consumption (6)________, drinking contexts and drinking patterns, alcohol-related problems, approaches to prevention and treatment, and drinking indicators in each nation.
Q12) Read the given text and choose words from the box to fill the gaps.
remember look offer give apply complete broad wide provide
Starting a (1) _________ data entry business is easier than trying to work from job to job. Having a business means that people will come to your business whenever they need a service you (2) ___________ This also means that instead of having to always(3) ________ for jobs on freelancing websites, you will be able to have clients come to you as needed. One important thing to (4) _______ when starting a data entry business is that customer service is really important.
It’s hard to get anywhere in the data entry field if you don’t (5)______ your customers with all the services they need. It’s important that you take your time to really care for your customers completely. Once you are ready to start your data entry business it’s time to start building a great team. You want to have a team that can do a (6) _______ range of tasks so that your business can fill customer’s needs. You want to always test your team before giving them the task of working with a client.
Q13) Reading & Writing: Fill in the blanks
Using questionnaires to gather information from people is a well-used quantitative research method. It is considered to be an easy ___________ , but in reality, it is actually very difficult to design a good questionnaire. Question type, clarity of language, length of questionnaire and layout are just some of the many ____________, which all need to be carefully considered when designing the questionnaire. Another issue, which _________ some deliberation, is how to ensure a high response __________.
option opportunity selection influences requires factors rate
Psychology is a suitable course study for those ______ in all aspects of all human thought and behaviour. It can be ______ as the scientific study of how humans function on biological, social and mental level. There are a range of influential approaches to the subject, which are _____ to such areas as child development, health, education and sports.
practised defined affected interested applied diagnosed
Migration could be described as the well-defined journey animals make to a familiar ____ at specific seasons or times of the year. All species that migrate do so for a common ____, in order to survive. Migration allows them to spend their life in more than one area and thus ____ problems that can occur in one habitat, such as lack of food, shelter or exposure to harsh weather.
position purpose destination experience situation avoid
Multinational companies are often criticised for a number of reasons, but we cannot deny their ____ impact. Employment opportunities are generated for locals in the overseas country. When multinational companies set up manufacturing plants, there is often an increased ____ of products for local consumers, which profits the local economy. Training is also sometimes provided in the use of technology; moreover, the experience and knowledge that the employees ____ strengthens their skills and overall employability.
positive gain purchase negative availability benefit
Q14) Geelong’s Gordon Institute will undergo a $10 million upgrade, to …………………..building of a new technical school.
Training and Skills Minister Steve Herbert ……………………on Friday the State Government would contribute $5 million and the Gordon $5 million for work which would signal a new era for the institution. Work will include presenting a new facade to Latrobe Terrace, as well as …………………of laboratories and equipment.
The institute’s library will shift to the new tech school.
“This major redevelopment for the Gordon means students of all ages will have access to cutting-edge ………………and equipment, giving them the skills they need for the jobs they want,” Mr Herbert said.
Proceed , announced ,accompany, bringing ,updating, facilities, technology
Q15).REIQ Gold Coast zone chairman John Newlands said some southern suburbs were shaking off a poor reputation and …………………….gentrification as wealthier residents moved in and displaced people from lower-income groups.
“I think suburbs such as Miami have become ………………with people who previously would not have gone there,” he said.
“They have come into their own with new restaurants and markets………………, which has also made them more attractive.”
Developers have …………….on to the trend as well, with Sunland launching a $62 million development, Magnoli Residences, in Palm Beach.
avail, experiencing , popular ,famous, closing , opening , cottoned ,launched
Q16).It was nice while it lasted, but the balmy June …………………is about to be washed away by a wintry long weekend, with rain tipped for Saturday and Monday.
After three days of glorious sunshine …………………day time maximums of 21C or above, an approaching cold front — and another one on Sunday — is set to remind people in the south of the state that it really is winter.
The southern half of the state had an early taste of it last month with ……………..cold fronts which lashed the state, bringing ………………………winds up to 111km/h and rainfall in excess of 100mm to parts of the South West.
And in the north of the state a trough and subsequent rain band will bring showers to western parts of the Pilbara from Friday onwards.
raining ,Sunshine, produced ,demanded , successive ,daily , destructive, strong
Q17) MCQ-SINGLE ANSWER
Read the following passage and answer question 1.
Unemployment was the overriding fact of life when Franklin D. Roosevelt became president of the United States on March 4, 1933. An anomaly of the time was that the government did not systematically collect statistics of joblessness; actually it did not start doing so until 1940. The Bureau of Labor Statistics later estimated that 12,830,000 persons were out of work in 1933, about one-fourth of a civilian labor force of more than 51 million.
Roosevelt signed the Federal Emergency Relief Act on May 12, 1933. The president selected Harry L. Hopkins, who headed the New York relief program, to run FERA. A gifted administrator, Hopkins quickly put the program into high gear. He gathered a small staff in Washington and brought the state relief organizations into the FERA system.
While the agency tried to provide all the necessities, food came first. City dwellers usually got an allowance for fuel, and rent for one month was provided in case of eviction.
1. This passage is primarily about…
[A]. unemployment in the 1930s.
[B]. the effect of unemployment on United States families.
[C]. President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s presidency.
[D]. President Roosevelt’s FERA program
Read the following passage and answer question 2.
It has frequently been argued that freeing schools from the rigid rules, regulations and statutes that have traditionally fettered them would have a revolutionary effect on academic achievement. For instance, it has been suggested that schools embodying this idea could develop more effective teaching methods that could then be replicated in other schools. Character schools public schools that operate under a contract, or “charter” were given just such an opportunity beginning in 1991, when Minnesota passed the first charter school law. At that time, many critics warned of deleterious rather than beneficial effects that such freewheeling schools could have on the academic achievement of students. Thus, while public opinion differed concerning the social desirability of charter schools, most agreed that there would be a pronounced effect.
Surprisingly, educators who study educational reform now seriously question the degree to which charter schools have made an impact. That conclude that freedom from many of the policies and regulations affecting traditional public schools and the concomitant control over decisions that guide the day – to – day affairs of the School have not resulted in equally dramatic changes in student’s academic performance. In some state performance standards than traditional public schools. It is, however, impossible to know whether this difference is due to the performance of the schools, the prior achievement of the students, or some other factor.
Metrics for educational accountability have changed considerably in the past decade, moving increasingly to performance as measured by state mandated tests of individual student achievement. Fundamentally, however, the challenging conditions under which schools operate, be they traditional or charter, have changed little: the struggle for resources, low pay for teachers, accountability to multiple stakeholders, and the difficulty of meeting the educational requirements of children with special needs all persist.
2. Which of the following statements best summarizes the main point of the passage?
[A]. Charter schools, despite their merits, fail to overcome the long-standing problems in public education.
[B]. Recent studies have shown that charter schools have had a revolutionary effect on student achievement.
[C]. Freeing schools from some of the restrictions that govern them has caused a change in education since 1991.
[D]. Charter schools have created a whole new way of educating children that did not previously exist.
Q18). MULTIPLE-CHOICE, CHOOSE MULTIPLE ANSWER
Read the following passage and answer question 1.
Using infant mortality as a key indicator of the status of children, we now begin to have the broad features of a hypothesis as to the causes of higher or lower mortality rates. One aspect is the complex of factors involving the access of mothers to trained personnel and other facilities for child delivery, the nutritional status of pregnant and nursing mothers and the quality of health care and nourishment which babies receive.
The other aspect, indicated by rural urban differentials, is the possible importance of human settlement patterns in relation to the availability of health care and related facilities such as potable water, excreta disposal systems, etc. Thus, in a special sense it is much cheaper to make health and other basic services available to a community when it is densely settled rather than widely dispersed. It is possible to argue, however, that both these sets of factors are closely related to a third one, namely, income levels. Poorer mothers and babies have less access to health-care facilities and nourishment than those who are better off; urban communities are on an average much better off than rural communities.
That economic condition plays a crucial role in determining the status of both mother and child, is beyond dispute. But the question really is whether this is the only decisive factor or whether factors such as the availability of medical facilities, health care programs and nutritional programs have an independent role. If so then the settlement patterns which affect service delivery to the mother and child target groups become a relevant consideration. These are clearly issues of some importance for policy and program planning.
Ques 1. Which among the following statements are correct?
[A]. It is easy and economical to provide health care facilities in dense settlements.
[B]. The fact that income has an important role to play in health care is arguable.
[C]. A densely settled community has to be supplied with health and basic services after bearing a large cost.
[D]. Mothers from well to do families can provide better care and facilities to their babies.
[E]. The settlement conditions, income levels and health facilities are the only influencing factors behind the varying mortality rates.
Read the following passage and answer question 2.
Until the mid-20th century, scientists believed that the chest cavity would implode at around 115 feet. Water pressure, they argued, reaches 65 pounds per square inch at that depth, which is enough to shrink lungs to the size of grapefruits and collapse rib cages like empty soda cans. Their theory went out the window in the 1950’s and early 1960’s, however, when divers like Enzo Maiorca returned from beyond 115-feet with rib cages intact. We now know that water pressure forces blood vessels in the chest to swell, filling the void left by the lungs with an incompressible fluid.
Among the dangers of free diving, the most disconcerting is shallow-water blackout—the brains frightening tendency to shut down within 15 feet of the surface during the ascent. As you descend, water pressure squeezes your lungs, condensing the oxygen and giving you what feels like a second breath. During the return trip, however, your lungs re-expand, dissipating whats left of your oxygen. If levels drop too low, not enough will move into the bloodstream, and the lights go out. Fortunately, the body’s laryngospasm reflex kicks in to tighten the throat and keep water out for up to a minute—just enough time for your dive buddy to drag you to the surface, tilt your head back, and beg, “Breathe, baby.”
Knowing Johnston will be there watching my eyes as I ascend (seeing them roll back in the head is a red flag), I dip below the surface. Staying in the syringe—dive speak for a tight hydrodynamic column—I kick down to 30 feet, my point of neutral buoyancy, and then sink effortlessly to the bottom. I feel good—surprisingly good—thanks to the densely packed oxygen molecules in my lungs.
Lingering a moment, I peer up at the mirrored surface that separates this liquid world from mine. Diving to 55 feet was no sweat. I figure I could dive twice that with a little practice, reaching what scientists thought, not 50 years ago, was the body’s depth limit. Today, however, that boundary has been pushed to at least 531 feet (the current no-limits world record), which begs the question: Just how deep can humans go? “We don’t know that yet,” says Lundgren, adding ominously. “But one day someone will find out
Ques 2. Which of the following is true in respect of the effect of water pressure on humans?
[A]. Scientists believed that the chest cavity would blow up at a depth of about 115 feet.
[B]. Rib cages will collapse at the water pressure of 65 pounds per square inch.
[C]. Blood vessels of the chest enlarge and fill the empty space left by lungs that have been compressed.
[D]. It is now known that lungs will not shrink with increase in water pressure.
[E]. It is no longer believed that the chest cavity will cave in at a depth of about 115 feet.
1) Re-order / Rearrange the sentence in such a way that make sense.
[A]. As officials, their vision of a country shouldn’t run too far beyond that of the local people with whom they have to deal.
[B]. Ambassadors have to choose their words.
[C]. To say what they feel they have to say, they appear to be denying or ignoring part of what they know.
[D]. So, with ambassadors as with other expatriates in black Africa, there appears at a first Meeting a kind of ambivalence.
[E]. They do a specialized job and it is necessary for them to live ceremonial lives.
2) Re-order / Rearrange the sentence in such a way that make sense.
Re-order / Rearrange the sentence in such a way that make sense.
[A]. Realists believe that there is an objective reality “out there” independent of ourselves.
[B]. This reality exists solely by virtue of how the world is and it is in principle discoverable by application of the methods of science.
[C]. They believe in the possibility of determining whether or not a theory is indeed really true or false.
[D]. I think it is fair to say that this is the position to which most working scientists subscribe.
3) Re-order / Rearrange the sentence in such a way that make sense.
[A]. In America, highly educated women, who are in stronger position in the labour market than less qualified ones, have higher rates of marriage than other groups.
[B]. Some work supports the Becker thesis, and some appears to contradict it.
[C]. And, as with crime, it is equally inconclusive.
[D]. But regardless of the conclusion of any particular piece of work, it is hard to establish convincing connections between family changes and economic factors using conventional approaches.
[E]. Indeed, just as with crime, an enormous academic literature exists on the validity of the pure economic approach to the evolution of family structures
4). Re-order / Rearrange the sentence in such a way that make sense. #1
[A]. The revolution began as an attack on despotism.
[B]. Already by 1762 Rousseau was implying in his “Social Contract”that there was no meaningful difference between the authority of a despot and that of a monarch.
[C]. As usual, regular usage soon diluted the original rigor of the expression’s meaning.
[D]. Montesquieu has defined its spirit as “The rule of one ,according to no law”.
[E]. Obeying no law, authority was arbitrary and its animating spirit was fear.
Q20) The Future of food
Anyone reading Brian Ford’s “The Future of Food” might be excused for wanting to give up eating entirely. Take, for example, the humble and immensely useful hen’s egg. Humble, but beautiful in shape, a natural piece of minimalist sculpture. There naturalism ends. The golden-yellow look of the egg’s yolk is produced by feeding the hen with something called caroteinoids, the amount of which controls the colour 1)________ most appealing to the buyer. Caroteinoids are considered to be safe, but the natural look of a yolk is pale yellow, and that is what most egg eaters would probably prefer if they knew that hens’ feed was being 2)________ with. Never mind, at least the egg is free-range: it says so on the box. Well, yes, but hens are descended from woodland birds, and are unlikely to be at ease in open fields. Keeping them in a 3)________ could, it is argued, actually be more humane.
Then there is disease. Most people have heard of salmonella and hope that their breakfast egg is not the one in 1,000 that is, on average, infected with this organism that can give you a tummy pain or worse. Mr Ford, a biologist, lists ten diseases that you can get from 4)________ foods, such as cheese and meat, and gives warning that more unpleasant discoveries are on the way. He has some interesting notions about the future. He reckons that people will eventually stop eating roast beef, and not just because it might kill them with CJD, but because time-consuming 5)________ cookery will come to an end. Cooking itself will become a luxury and houses will be built without kitchens, just as they are now being built without fireplaces. Already, it seems, Italian, French and German housewives (and house-husbands) are getting fed up with all the slicing, chopping and marinading involved in preparing meals for their 6)________ families. Clearly there are going to be many and varied successors to TV-dinners.
Whatever its form, the food of the future can only be healthier, Mr Ford believes. It is a brave 7)________. His message appears to be that the consumer will become better educated about healthy eating. As a primer he offers lists of the ingredients necessary to stay alive and 8)________. Are you getting enough folic acid and tocopherol in your diet? And don’t forget biotin, essential for metabolism. It may be that the eating millions will one day take an informed interest in what goes into the stomach, carefully assessing the components of processed food, which 9)________ manufacturers will list in print big enough to be read without a magnifying glass. But the auguries are not good.
Most people know that salt and fats are likely to be dangerous to health if taken in large amounts. Yet in the rich world pretty nearly every packed lunch in a schoolchild’s 10)________ contains a packet of potato crisps heavily dosed with both. Well, yes, say the fond mums, we shouldn’t, but the children do so love them.
Q1. A counted B deemed C esteemed D viewed
Q2. A juggled B meddled C messed D tampered
Q3. A cottage B house C shack D shed
Q4. A customary B everyday C usual D workaday
Q5. A domestic B housestead C indigenous D native
Q6. A caressed B favoured C fondled D pampered
Q7. A prediction B proverb C supposition D surmise
Q8. A boom B fare C luxuriate D prosper
Q9. A conscientious B conscious C correct D rigorous
Q10. A baggage B case C sack D satchel
Scroll Down For Answers >>>>>>>>
- discover, alternative, enhance, theorized, affection
- choices, fork, sorry, both, direction
- bustling, sandy, peaceful, cosmopolitan, crowded
- improve, empathy, listen, increased, positive
- fascinating, crowned, protect, educated, skills, escaped, possessions
- located, discovered, vestige, descendants, mutineers, communicate
- collected, relatively, kept, during, coming, grown
- painful 2. attending 3. answer 4. suited 5. suggests 6. takes 7. join 8. situations 9. last 10. Confident
- 1. similar 2. formulate 3. devised 4. vertical 5. impact 6. summary
- 7. denote 8. assigned 9. criteria 10. ignored 11. Data
- substantially 2. appropriate 3. characteristics 4. insight 5. analyzed 6. Pattern
- complete 2.offer 3. apply 4. remember 5. provide 6. Wide
Answer 1: using knowledge of collocation and reading comprehension can get it right quickly
- option (collocation with easy)
- factors (contextual meaning)
- requires (contextual meaning)
- rate (collocation with response)
- interested (contextual meaning)
- defined: (definition follows)
- applied (contextual & collocation: apply to )
- destination (collocation with journey)
- purpose (collocation with common)
- avoid (contextual meaning & grammar – verb needed here)
- positive (grammar – adjective & contextual
meaning – we can rule out
- availability (grammar – Noun needed here)
- gain (collocation with experience and knowledge)
14. Accompany, announced, updating, facilities
15. Experiencing, popular, opening, cottoned
16. Sunshine, produced, successive, destructive
17. D, A
19. 1) BEADC 2. ABCD 3. AECBD 4. ADECB