1) The Grand Canyon: The Grand Canyon is 277 miles long, up to 18 miles wide and attains a depth of over a mile. While the specific geologic processes and timing that formed the Grand Canyon are the subject of debate by geologists, recent evidence suggests the Colorado River established its course through the canyon at least 17 million years ago.
2) Carbon Dioxide Emissions: When countries assess their annual carbon dioxide emissions, they count up their cars and power stations, but bush fires are not included – presumably because they are deemed to be events beyond human control. In Australia, Victoria alone sees several hundred thousand hectares burn each year; in both 2004 and the present summer, the figure has been over 1 million hectares.
3) Fiscal Year: At the beginning of each fiscal year funds are allocated to each State account in accordance with the University’s financial plan. Funds are allocated to each account by object of expenditure. Account managers are responsible for ensuring that adequate funds are available in the appropriate object before initiating transactions to use the funds.
4) Blue: While blue is one of the most popular colors, it is one of the least appetizing. Blue food is rare in nature. Food researchers say that when humans searched for food, they learned to avoid toxic or spoiled objects, which were often blue, black or purple. When food dyed blue is served to study objects, they lose appetite.
5) Himalayas: Although it hails from a remote region of the western Himalayas, this plant now looks entirely at home on the banks of English rivers. Brought to the UK in 1839, it quickly escaped from Victorian gardens and colonized river banks and damp woodlands. Now it is spreading across Europe, New Zealand, Canada and the US.
6) Yellow Tulip: How do we imagine the unimaginable? If we’re asked to think of an object -say, a yellow tulip – a picture immediately forms in our mind’s eye? But what if we try to imagine a concept such as the square root of a negative number?
7) Productive Capacity: The core of the problem was the immense disparity between the country’s productive capacity and the ability of people to consume. Great innovations in productive techniques during and after the war raised the output of industry beyond the purchasing capacity of U.S. farmers and wage earners.
8) Pluto: Pluto lost its official status as a planet yesterday, when the International Astronomical Union downsized the solar system from nine to eight planets. Although there had been passionate debate at the IAU General Assembly Meeting in Prague about the definition of a planet – and whether Pluto met the specifications – the audience greeted the decision to exclude it with applause.
9) Domestication: Domestication is an evolutionary, rather than a political, development. It is certainly not a regime humans imposed on animals some 10,000 years ago. Rather, domestication happened when a small handful of especially opportunistic species discovered through Darwinian trial and error that they were more likely to survive and prosper in an alliance with humans than on their own.
10) Botswana: Although Botswana’s economic outlook remains strong, the devastation that AIDS has caused threatens to destroy the country’s future. In 2001, Botswana has the highest rates of HIV infection in the world. With the help of international donors, it launched an ambitious national campaign that provided free antiviral drugs to anyone who need them, and by March 2004, Botswana’s infection rate has dropped significantly.
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11) Global financial crisis: New research shows that during the global financial crisis, workers who stayed in jobs did not reduce their working hours, despite the claims that cuts in hours have led to job losses. A study found that the life of people who stayed with the same employer remained relatively unchanged.
12) Shakespeare: A young man from a small provincial town-a man without independent wealth, without powerful family connections and without a university education – moved to London in the late 1580’s and, in a remarkably short time, became the greatest playwright not of his age alone but of all time. How did Shakespeare become Shakespeare
13) Lincoln: Lincoln’s apparently radical change of mind about his war power to emancipate slaves was caused by the escalating scope of the war, which convinced him that any measure to weaken the Confederacy and strengthen the Union war effort was justifiable as a military necessity.
14) Akimbo: Akimbo, this must be one of the odder-looking words in the language. It puzzles us in part because it doesn’t seem to have any relatives. What’s more, it is now virtually a fossil word, until recently almost invariably found in arms, akimbo, a posture in which a person stands with hands on hips and elbows sharply bent outward, one that signals impatience and hostility.
15) Yellow: Yellow is considered as the most optimistic color, yet surprisingly, people lose their tempers most often in yellow rooms and babies will cry more. The reason may be that yellow is the hardest color for eyes to take in, so it can be overpowering if overused.
16) Microbes: Such cross-protection is usually seen between two animals. But Gore studies the same sort of mutualism in microbes. He and his team demonstrated the first experimental example of that cross-protective relationship in drug-resistant microbes, using two strains of antibiotic-resistant E coli bacteria: one resistant to ampicillin, the other to chloramphenicol.
17) Botanic gardens: Botanic gardens are scientific and cultural institutions established to collect, study, exchange and display plants for research and for the education and enjoyment of the public. There are major botanic gardens in each capital city. Zoological parks and aquariums are primarily engaged in the breeding, preservation, study and display of native and exotic fauna in captivity, and are accessible to the public.
18) Magnetars: The best comparison is likely a magnetar, a young neutron star with a powerful magnetic field, the researchers said. Magnetars also produce bright X-ray flares. While magnetars are thought to be young stars, the two flaring objects in this study reside near elliptical galaxies, which contain older stars. So the objects are likely too old to be magnetars, the researchers said.
19) 21st century: The beginning of the twenty-first century will be remembered, not for military conflicts or political events, but for a whole new age of globalization – a ‘flattening’ of the world. The explosion of advanced technologies now means that suddenly knowledge pools and resources have connected all over the planet, leveling the playing field as never before.
20) Networking: Networking is easy and fun because it taps into this human predilection to talk about ourselves when asked. Consider successful networking as little more than the process of guiding a person to tell you about his life, what he’s doing, the company that employs him, and his current industry.
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21) Marijuana: Another administration option is to bake marijuana at a relatively low temperature to kill any dangerous microorganisms and then allow that patient to eat it or drink it. Both of these methods of administration make smoking the drug unnecessary. However, criticism of medical marijuana has also been raised because as a natural plant, it cannot be patented and marketed by pharmaceutical companies and is unlikely to win widespread medical acceptance.
22) Fast radio burst: First discovered in 2007, “fast radio burst” continue to defy explanation. These cosmic chirps last a thousandth of second. The characteristics of the radio pulses suggested that they came from galaxies billions of light-years away. However, new works points to a much closer origin – flaring stars within our own galaxy.
23) The brain: The brain is divided into two hemispheres, called the left and right hemispheres. Each hemisphere provided a different set of functions, behaviors, and controls. The right hemisphere is often called the creative side of the brain, while the left hemisphere is the logical or analytical side of brain. The right hemisphere controlled the left parts of the body, and the left hemisphere controlled the right side.
24) Sales down: Weakness in electronics, auto and gas station sales dragged down overall retail sales last month, but excluding those three categories, retailers enjoyed healthy increase across the board, according to government figures released Wednesday. Moreover, December sales numbers were also revised higher.
25) Private Equity: It isn’t rare for private equity houses to hire graduates fresh out of business school, he said, but nine times out of ten, the students who nab these jobs are the ones who had private equity experience under their belt before even starting their MBA program.
26) Population Growth :How quickly is the world’s population growing? In the United States and other developed countries, the current growth rate is very low. In most developing countries, the human population is growing at a rate of 3% per second. Because of this bustling growth rate, the human population is well on its way to reach 9 billion within our lifetime.
27) Electronic discourse: Electronic discourse is one form of interactive electronic communication. In this study, we reserve the term for the two-directional texts in which one person using a keyboard writes language that appears on the sender’s monitor and is transmitted to the monitor of a recipient, who responds by keyboard.
28) Marketing course: For any marketing course that requires the development of a marketing plan, such as Marketing Management, Marketing Strategy and segmentation support Marketing. This is the only planning handbook that guides students through step by step creation of a customized marketing plan while offering commercial software to aid in the process.
29) Written Examination: Written examinations are a fact of life for most high school and university students. However, recent studies have shown that this traditional form of assessment may not be an accurate indicator of academic performance. Tests have shown that many students experience anxiety during exam weeks, which leads to poorer results. As a result, some learning institutions are replacing exams with alternative assessments such as group work and oral presentations.
30) Sustainable agriculture: Since its inception, the UN system has been working to ensure adequate food for all through sustainable agriculture. The majority of the world’s poorest people live in rural areas of developing countries. They depend on agriculture and related activities for their livelihoods. This makes them particularly vulnerable to man-made and wealth influences that reduce agricultural production.
31) Language appeared from nowhere: It seems that language appeared from nowhere since no other species has anything resembling human language. However, other animals do possess basic systems for perceiving and producing sounds that enable them to communicate. These systems may have been in place before the appearance of language.
32) Augustus: Augustus was given the powers of an absolute monarch, but he presented himself as the preserver of republican tradition. He treated the Senate, or state council, with great respect, and was made Consul year after year. He successfully reduced the political power of the army by retiring many soldiers but giving them land or money to keep their loyalty.
33) Industrial Revolution: As to the Industrial Revolution, one cannot dispute today the fact that it has succeeded in inaugurating in a number of countries a level of mass prosperity which was undreamt of in the days preceding the Industrial Revolution. But, on the immediate impact of Industrial Revolution, there were substantial divergences among writers.
34) Diversity of language: The diversity of human language may be compared to the diversity of the natural world. Just as the extinction of different plants deprives humanity of biomedical resources, so too would the extinction of other languages lead to deprivation: of culture, wealth, and art.
35) Incentive pay Schemes: If bonus or “incentive pay” schemes work so well for senior executives and bankers, why does everyone not get them? After all, many jobs involve making important decisions or taking risks. Is there anything about corporate decisions and financial risks that makes these categories of work special in terms of how they need to be incentivised and rewarded?
36) Vanilla: The uniquely scented flavor of vanilla is second only to chocolate in popularity on the world’s palate. It’s also the second most expensive spice after saffron. But highly labor intensive cultivation methods and the plant’s temperamental life cycle and propagation mean production on a global scale is struggling to keep up with the increasing demand for the product.
37) No Ordinary Book: This book is no ordinary book and should not be read through from beginning to end. It contains many different adventures, and the path you take will depend on the choices you make along the way. The success or failure of your mission will depend on the decisions you make, so think carefully before choosing.
38) Two Sisters: Two sisters were at a dinner party when the conversation turned to upbringing. The elder sister started to say that her parents had been very strict and that she had been rather frightened of them. Her sister, younger by two years, interrupted in amazement. “What are you talking about?” she said. “Our parents were very lenient. I remember being allowed to stay out late and to do all sorts of things. How could you call them strict?”
39) Legal writing: Legal writing is usually less discursive than writing in other humanities subjects, and precision is more important than variety. Sentence structure should not be too complex; it is usually unnecessary to make extensive use of adjectives or adverbs, and consistency of terms is often required.
40) Semiconductor: The semiconductor industry has been able to improve the performance of electric systems for more than four decades by making ever-smaller devices. However, this approach will soon encounter both scientific and technical limits, which is why the industry is exploring a number of alternative device technologies.
41) Japanese Tea Ceremony: The Japanese tea ceremony is a ritual influenced by Buddhism in which green tea is prepared and served to a small group of guests in a peaceful setting. The ceremony can take as long as hours and there are many traditional gestures that both the server and the guest must perform.
42) Russia: Long isolated from Western Europe, Russia grew up without participating in shared developments like the Reformation. Russians took pride in their unique culture and found dubious value in foreign ideals. As a result, Russia is the most unusual member of the European family, if indeed it can be considered one at all. This question is still hotly debated, particularly amongst Russians.
43) MBA: Exhilarating, exhausting and intense. These are just some of the words used to describe doing an MBA. Everyone’s experience of doing MBA is, of course, different through denying that it’s hard and a demanding work whichever course you do. MBA is one of the fastest growing areas of studying in the UK so that must be a sustainable benefit against form in one pain.
44) Statistical Information: The provision of accurate and authoritative statistical information strengthens our society. It provides a basis for decisions to be made on public policy, such as determining electoral boundaries and where to locate schools and hospitals. It also allows businesses to know their market, grow their business, and improve their marketing strategies by targeting their activities appropriately.
45) Fast food: Hundreds of millions of people buy fast food every day without giving it much thought, unaware of the subtle and not so subtle ramifications of their purchases. They just grasp a hamburger and unwrap it and tossed the wrap into the bin. The whole experience is transitory and soon forgotten.
46) Australian English: Australians speak English of course. But for many tourists and even some locals, Australian English has only tenuous links with mother tone. Our speech is prepared with words and phrases whose arcane meanings are understood only by the initiate. It is these colorful colloquialisms that Australian slang set to truly explain.
47) Introvert and Extrovert: Introvert (or those of us with introverted tendencies) tends to recharge by spending time alone. They lose energy from being around people for long periods of time, particularly large crowds. Extroverts, on the other hand, gain energy from other people. Extroverts actually find their energy is sapped when they spend too much time alone. They recharge by being social.
48) Teacher’s instruction: In classes, your teachers will talk about topics that you are studying. The information that they provide will be important to know when you take tests. You must be able to take good written notes from what your teacher says.
49) Orientalists: Orientalists, like many other nineteenth-century thinkers, conceive of humanity either in large collective terms or in abstract generalities. Orientalists are neither interested in nor capable of discussing individuals; instead, artificial entities predominate. Similarly, the age-old distinction between “Europe” and “Asia” or “Occident” and “Orient” herds beneath very wide labels every possible variety of human plurality, reducing it in the process to one or two terminal collective realities.
50) Curiosity: The training of an actor is an intensive process which requires curiosity, courage and commitment. You will learn how to prepare for rehearsal, how to rehearse and how to use independent and proactive processes that inform you to do the best work possible for both stage and screen.
51) The most memorable benefit: Perhaps the most measurable benefit of the program has been the opportunity to me in small groups, something that is difficult to arrange such a desperate organization. Many officers would have to work together for thirty years but would not know other’s strengths and weaknesses.
52) Examination: The department determines whether or not the candidate has passed the examination. In cases where an appearance for the final public oral examination would constitute a substantial financial hardship for the candidate, the director of graduate studies may recommend to the dean of the Graduate School that the examination be waived.
53) Company imprint: Companies will want to be known not just for the financial results they generate, but equally for the imprint they leave on society as a whole. First, ensuring that their products contribute positively. Second, operating in a way that approaches a “net-neutral” impact to the natural environment. And third, cherishing their people.
54) Recycling: When we recycle, used materials are converted into new products, reducing the need to consume natural resources. If used materials are not recycled, new products are made by extracting fresh, raw material from the Earth, through mining and forestry. Recycling helps conserve important raw materials and protects natural habitats for the future.
55) Elephant: The elephant is the largest living land mammal. During evolution, its skeleton has greatly altered from the usual mammal, design for two main reasons. One is to cope with the great weight of huge grinding cheek teeth and elongated tusk teeth , making the skull particularly massive. The other is to support the enormous bulk of such a huge body.
56) Business School Admissions : Business school admissions officers said the new drive to attract younger students was in part the result of a realization that they had inadvertently limited their applicant pool by requiring several years’ work experience. Talented students who might otherwise have gone to business school instead opted for a law or policy degree because they were intimidated by the expectation of work experience.
57) Hazard Assessment: A Hazard Assessment should be performed for work involving distillations of organic liquids and should thoroughly address issues relating to residual water and possible decomposition of the solvent in question, as well as the physical placement of the distillation apparatus and heating equipment to be employed.
58) Shrimp: Shrimp farmers used to hold animals in nursery ponds for 30 to 60 days; now they try to move them into grow-out ponds in less than 30 days. This reduces stress on the animals and dramatically increases survivals in the grow-out ponds. Many farms that abandoned nursery ponds have gone back to them, and the results have been surprisingly positive. They’re using the old, uncovered, earthen, nursery ponds.
59) Electric Car: First-year university students have designed and built a ground breaking electric car that recharges itself. Fifty students from the University of Sydney‘s Faculty of Engineering spent five months working together bits of plywood, foam and fiberglass to build the Mango concept car. They developed the specifications and hand built the car. It’s a pretty radical design: a four-wheel drive with a motor in each wheel.
60) Environmental Policy Course: Along with customary classes on subjects such as finance, accounting, and marketing, today’s MBA students are enrolling on courses for environmental policy and stewardship. Indeed, more than half of business schools require a course in environmental sustainability or corporate social responsibility, according to a survey of 91 US business schools, published in October 2005.
61) Tourism: Tourism is a challenging sector on which divides statistics since businesses serving tourists, also service local people. Therefore, it is not s straightforward to estimate how much business sectors’ revenues and how many jobs are due to tourist expenditures.
62) The preparation of abstract: The preparation of abstracts is an intellectual effort, requiring general familiarity with the subject. To bring out the salient points of an author’s argument calls for skills and experience. Consequently, a considerable amount of qualified manpower that could be used to advantage in other ways must be diverted to task of facilitating access to information.
63) Public demand for education: Public demand for education has remained strong, reflecting the importance of education as a means of social progress. Aware of the social value of education to the world of the work, the government continues to innovate and update the education system in order to produce a qualified and competent work force.
64) Globalization: Globalization has affected what we eat in ways we are only beginning to understand. Modern food production no longer related to our biological needs but is in direct conflict with them. The relationship between diet and our fertility, our cancer, heart diseases and mental illness is becoming clear. Yet much of our food is nutritionally bankrupt.
65) Online shopping environments: A unique characteristic of online shopping environments is that they allow vendors to create retail interfaces with highly interactive features. One desirable form of interactivity from a consumer perspective is the implementation of sophisticated tools to assist shoppers in their purchase decisions by customizing the electronic shopping environment to their individual preferences.
66) Bookkeepers: A national study into fraud by bookkeepers employed at small and medium-sized businesses has uncovered 65 instances of theft in more than five year, with more than $31 million stolen. Of the cases identified by the research, 56 involved women and nine instances involved men. However, male bookkeepers who defrauded their employer stole three times, on average, the amount that women stole.
67) Internal combustion engine: Internal combustion engine, enabling the driver to decide which source of power is appropriate for the travel requirements of given journey. Major US auto manufacturers are now developing feasible hybrid electric vehicles, and some are exploring fuel-cell technology for their electric cars.
68) The only family: Imagine living all your life as the only family on your street. Then, one morning, you open the front door and discover houses all around you. You see neighbors tending their gardens and children walking to school. Where did all the people come from? What if the answer turned out to be that they had always been there—you just hadn’t seen them?
69) Love: It seems that, when it comes to love, men and women are designed to misconstrue, misread and misunderstand one another – and themselves. Look more closely at the unconscious workings of the mating mind, however, and you discover that in fact they make good sense.
70) Tesla and Edison (Version 2): Tesla’s theoretical work formed the basis of modern alternating current electric power systems. Thomas Edison promised him almost one million dollars in today’s money to undertake motor and generator improvement. However, when Tesla ethical serbs asked about the money, Edison reportedly reply “Tesla, you don’t understand our American humor.” The pair becomes arch rivals.
71) Important value of literature: One of the important values of literature is that knowledge is our emotional life, the inner life that good review in their characters, often gives us glimpses into some portion of ourselves. We can devote to laugh, cry tremor, dream, ponder, shriek, or rik by simply turning a page inside of turning our lives upside down.
72) Method of learning: There is no single method of learning that guarantees success. How we learn depends on many different factors. And what works best for you be the same approach used for the other students even if they study the same course. We are all unique learners, although some patterns emerge within groups of students.
73) A World Without Light: Have you ever picture a world without light? Just think how much we rely on man-made light sources in our lives, without engineers, we wouldn’t be able to live the way we do. No street lights, no TV, no computer displays, no house light, engineers design and build all these things.
74) Teenage Girls: Teenage girls are continuing to outperform boys in English while the gender gap in achievements in math and science has almost disappeared. The figures show that last year 80% of 14-year-old girls reached at least the expected level 5 in English, compared with 65% of boys. But in math, the girls are just 1% ahead of boys, while in science the difference is 2%.
75) Black Swan: Before the discovery of Australia, people in the old world were convinced that all swans were white, an unassailable belief as it seemed completely confirmed by empirical evidence. The sighting of the first black swan might have been an interesting surprise for a few ornithologists (and others extremely concerned with the coloring of birds), but that is not where the significance of the story lies..
76) The Emergence of IT: The emergence of Information Technology has created new products, processes and distribution systems. New products include the computer, the internet and digital TV; new processes include internet banking, automated inventory control and automated teller machines; and new distribution systems include cable and satellite TV.
77) Yield of plants: The maximum yield of plants, determined by their genetic potential, is seldom achieved because factors such as insufficient water or nutrients, adverse climate condition, plant diseases, and insect damage will limit growth at some stage. Plants subjected to these biotic and abiotic constraints are said to be stressed.
78) Carbon-neutral: You used to think that being green was a luxury for your company, but climate change has made you realize that you can no longer ignore it. The buzz is about becoming carbon-neutral, but where do you start? Consider your drivers. Do you want to become carbon-neutral for marketing reasons, for financial reasons or to help save the planet?
79) Brain Hemispheres: The brain is divided into its hemispheres by a prominent groove. At the base of this lies nerve fibers which enable these two halves of the brain to communicate with each other. But the left hemisphere usually controls movement and sensation in the right side of the body, while the right hemisphere similarly controls the left side of the body.side.
80) Heterogeneous student populations: To work effectively with the heterogeneous student populations found in our schools, educators have the responsibility of acknowledging the cultural backgrounds of their students and the cultural setting in which the school is located in order to develop effective instructional strategies.
81) Informative Speech: The purpose of the informative speech is to provide interesting, useful, and unique information to your audience. By dedicating yourself to the goals of providing information and appealing to your audience, you can take a positive step toward succeeding in your efforts as an informative speaker.
82) Political system: Thus, a country might possess a sizeable rural population, but have an economic system in which the interests of the voters were predominantly related to their incomes, not to their occupations or location; and in such a country the political system would be unlikely to include an important agrarian party.
83) Antarctica: Investigators also compared those microbes with those living in 52 other soil samples taken from all around the planet. The park had organisms that also exist in deserts, frozen tundra, forests, rainforests, and prairies. Antarctica was the only area that had microbes that did not overlap with those found in Central Park. Only a small percentage of the park’s microbes were found to be already listed in databases.
84) Constellation: A constellation is an area in the celestial sphere in which a group of stars forms an imaginary outline or pattern, typically representing an animal, mythological person or creature, or an inanimate object. The origins of the earliest constellations likely go back to prehistory.
85) Banking System: Fractional reserve banking is a banking system in which banks only hold a fraction of the money their customer’s deposit as reserves. This allows them to use the rest of it to make loans and thereby essentially create new money. This gives commercial banks the power to directly affect the money supply.
86) High quality of life: Inspire of the spectacularly high quality of life for the vast majority of the people who live in the European Union, its inhabitant seems obsessed by the region’s relative decline in the world. Slow economic growth rates and high unemployment have reinforced the impression that Europe is unhappy with today and unsure of tomorrow.
87) Australia Export: Australia has one of the world’s most important mining industries. It is a major exporter of coal iron ore gold and copper and is self-sufficient in all minerals bar petroleum. Since the first discoveries, the coal in 1798, mineral production has risen every year in the decade to 1992 it doubled.
88) Monarchy: The ritual of the state opening of parliament still illustrates the basis of the British constitution. The sovereignty of the Royal Family has passed to the sovereignty of parliament, leaving the monarchy with the trappings of power, while prime ministers are still denied the kind of status that is given to American and French presidents.
89) Capitalism: Most peasants remained self-sufficient and skeptical about money – and with good reason: the triumph of capitalism probably made them worse off. They now had to deal with a centralized imperial state that was collecting tax more efficiently, giving more power to landlords, and slowly reducing customary peasant rights to land and produce.
90) Economic planning: Another method governments use to try and influence the private sector is economic planning. For a long time now, socialist and communist states have used planning as an alternative to the price mechanism, organizing production and distributing their resources according to social and strategic needs, rather than based on purely economic considerations
91) Foam-filled furniture: Foam-filled furniture is very dangerous if it catches fire, and foam quickly produces a high temperature, thick smoke and poisonous gases – including carbon monoxide, Therefore, set levels of fire resistance have been established for new and second-hand upholstered furniture and other similar products.
92) Bergson’s theory: The starting point of Bergson’s theory is the experience of time and motion. Time is the reality we experience most directly, but this doesn’t mean that we can capture this experience mentally. The past is gone and the future is yet to come. The only reality is the present, which is real through our experience.
93) Saving and investment: It is important to note that saving is not the same as investment. Saving is about cash, while investment is about the real product. The difference is important because of money, being liquid, can leak out of the economic system – which it does when someone who is putting aside unspent income keeps it under the mattress.
94) Public demand: For the first two or three years after the Second World War, a new title would often sell out within a few months of publication. However, unless public demand for the book was unusually high, they were rarely able to reprint it. With paper stocks strictly rationed, they could not afford to use up precious paper or tie up their limited capital with a reprint.
95) Atlantic coast of the peninsula: The Atlantic coast of the peninsula can be thought of as the cold side, and the sea on this coast tends to be clear and cold, with a variety of seaweeds growing along the rocky shoreline. On a hot day, however, this cold water can be very refreshing and is said to be less hospitable to sharks, which prefer warmer waters.
96) Works of art: All the works of art shown in this exhibition were purchased on a shoestring budget. The criteria that the curators had to follow were that works must be acquired cheaply, appeal to a broad range of tastes, and fit with unusual environments. Thus, many of our better known modern artists are not represented.
97) Ponds: There are many kinds of pond, but nearly all are small bodies of shallow, stagnant water in which plants with roots can grow. Water movement is slight and temperatures fluctuate widely. The wealth of plants ensures that during daylight hours oxygen is plentiful. However, at night, when photosynthesis no longer takes place, oxygen supplies can fall very low.
98) The result of Greek influence: Before the time of Alexander the Great, the only eastern people who could be compared with the Greeks in the fields of science and philosophy were from the Indian sub-continent. However, because so little is known about Indian chronology, it is difficult to tell how much of their science was original and how much was the result of Greek influence.
99) Stamp: While far fewer people these days write letters and therefore have less use for stamps, there are still a few categories of stamps which attract collectors. Stamps in common use for an indefinite period – until the price goes up – are called “definitive” issues, while a more collectible type of stamp is the “commemorative” issue, honoring people, events and anniversaries.
100) Succulent plants: Most succulent plants are found in regions where there is little rainfall, dry air, plenty of sunshine, porous soils and high temperatures during part of the year. These conditions have caused changes in plant structures, which have resulted in greatly increased thickness of stems, leaves and sometimes roots, enabling them to store moisture from the infrequent rains.
101) Australian mining industries: Australia has one of the world’s most important mining industries. It is a major exporter of coal, iron ore, gold and copper and is self-sufficient in all minerals bar petroleum. Since the first discoveries, the coal in 1798, mineral production has risen every year in the decade to 1992 it doubled.
102) Scenario: It was found that while many companies express interest in Jacobson’s use case approach, actual scenario usage often falls outside what is described in textbooks and standard methodologies. Users therefore face significant scenario management problems not yet addressed adequately in theory or practice, and are demanding solutions to these problems.
102) Current measure: The current measure has remained virtually unchanged over the past 30 years. Yet during that time, there have been marked changes in the nation’s economy and society and in public policies that have affected families’ economic well-being, which is not reflected in the measure.
103) Scientific evidence: The latest scientific evidence on the nature and strength of the links between diet and chronic diseases is examined and discussed in detail in the following sections of this report. This section gives an overall view of the current situation and trends in chronic diseases at the global level.
104) European Union: In spite of the spectacularly high quality of life enjoyed by the vast majority of the people who live in the European Union, its inhabitants seem obsessed by the region’s relative decline in the world. Slow economic growth rates and high unemployment have reinforced the impression that Europe is unhappy with today and unsure of tomorrow.
105) Exporting firms: If countries can specialize in certain goods they can benefit from economies of scale and lower average cost. This is especially true in the industries with high fixed costs or that require a high level of investment. The benefits of the economy of scale will ultimately lead to lower prices for consumers and greater efficiency for exporting firms.
106) Executive order for army: But on May 3, a couple of weeks later, Lincoln issued an executive order calling for 43,000 three-year volunteers for the army, and also increasing the size of the regular army and navy by 40, 000 men. Both of these actions were in apparent violation of the constitution.
107) Night sky: Nature offers no greater splendor than the starry sky on a clear, dark night. Silent and jeweled with the constellations of ancient myth and legend, the night sky has inspired wonder throughout the ages, a wonder that leads our imaginations far from the confines of Earth and the pace of the present day, and out into the distant reaches of space and cosmic time itself.
108) Different services: The fact is that those different types of services affect many different dimensions of well-being of people. And define the human well-being is also extremely challenging. However, we identified that there are certain items provide basic material for life, whether it be food, shelter or happiness.
109) Thesis: A thesis is a claim that you can argue for or against. It should be something that you can present persuasively and clearly, the scope of your paper, so keep in mind that page count. If possible, your thesis should be somewhat original.
110) The Royal Institution: The Royal Institution is an organization that has been around for 209 years. Many of the people that have worked here have been scientists themselves, including Michael Faraday. He made the discoveries that may be generating a using electricity much easier, making it possible for us all to switch on lights, cook for dinner, play games consoles much more.
111) Chasing the Flame: Yet it is precisely in observing the intertwining of success and failure that chasing the Flame makes its greatest mark. With piercing insight and relentless logic, it reveals the pitfalls of international politics and details an intricate struggle between individual and institution. It haunts us with the poignant truth that even a great man can do only so much to reinvent the world.
112) Placebo: In general, placebos can affect how patients perceive their condition and encourage the body’s chemical processes for relieving pain and a few other symptoms, but have no impact on the disease itself. Improvements that patients experience after being treated with a placebo can also be due to unrelated factors, such as regression to the mean.
113) Chasing the flame: Despite the unique talents of its central figure, Chasing the Flame tells of more tragedies than triumphs. While allowing the reader to share in radiant moments of victory, it also reveals how, despite his unquenchable energy and brilliant vision, he often failed to bring about the peace and justice that he fervently desired to give to the people around him.
114) Couples: One would ideally want to minimize the total numbers of both attendees and households involved, Marcus says. People who live together are essentially combining their exposure, so think of things in terms of how many contacts you are bringing together. In general, a celebration with 10 residents from a single household will be lower risk than a gathering involving five couples from five different households.
115) Problem of Funding: The most important issue is concerned with the problem of funding. Social services receive different donations or grants from the government. However, these sums are not sufficient for the solution of all problems. The second most important issue consists in the huge spending. The money social services achieve is not enough for normal functioning. The third problem, affecting human services, is the lack of skilled and experienced employees.
116) US Market: The United States is at present the world’s market for motor cars and trucks. An agent for the U.S. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce reports a prosperous condition of affairs prevailing in Japan, which is buying more automobiles, especially large cars, than ever before.
117) Economic Well-being: The current measure has remained virtually unchanged over the past 30 years. Yet during that time, there have been marked changes in the nation’s economy and society and in public policies that have affected families’ economic well-being, which is not reflected in the measure.
118) Microscopic Invaders: We all know about bacteria, viruses and microscopic protozoa. We can watch the way that these tiny agents move into our bodies and damage our organs. We have a growing understanding of how our body mounts defensive strategies that fight off these invaders, and have built some clever chemical that can help mount an assault on these bio-villains.
119) Case Approach: It was found that while many companies express interest in Jacobson’s use case approach, actual scenario usage often falls outside what is described in textbooks and standard methodologies. Users therefore face significant scenario management problems not yet addressed adequately in theory or practice, and are demanding solutions to these problems.
120) Father: Every morning, no matter how late he had been up, my father rose at five-thirty, went to his study, wrote for a couple of hours, made us all breakfast, read the paper with my mother, and then went back to work for the rest of the morning. Many years passed before I realized that he did this for a living.
121) Second World War: For the first two or three years after the Second World War, a new title would often sell out within a few months of publication. However, unless public demand for the book was unusually high, they were rarely able to reprint it. With paper stocks strictly rationed, they could not afford to use up precious paper or tie up their limited capital with a reprint.
122) Financial Crisis: New research shows that during the global financial crisis, workers who stayed in jobs did not reduce their working hours, despite the claims that cuts in hours have led to job losses. A study found that the life of people who stayed with the same employer remained relatively unchanged.
123) Colloquialism: Australian speak English of course. But for many tourists and even some locals, Australian English has only tenuous links with mother tone. Our speech is prepared with words and phrases whose arcane meanings are understood only by the initiate. It is these colorful colloquialisms that Australian slang set to truly explain.
124) Man-made Light: Have you ever pictured a world without light? Just think how much we rely on man-made light sources in our lives. Without engineers, we wouldn’t be able to live the way we do. No street lights, no TV, no computer display, no house lights. Engineers design and build all these things, and they also design, build and run the electricity systems that power all these light sources.
125) Values of Literature: Certainly one of the important values of literature is that it nourishes our emotional lives. An effective literary work may seem to speak directly to us especially if we are ripe for it. The inner life that good writers reveal in their characters often gives us glimpses of some portion of ourselves. We can be moved to laugh, cry, tremble, dream, ponder, shriek, or rage with a character by simply turning the page instead of turning our lives upside down.
126) Domestic Division: Traditional divisions of domestic work are understood to persist because of the strong association of the home with femininity and paid work with masculinity – to challenge who does what in the home is arguably tantamount to challenging what it is to be a woman or a man.
127) Actor Training: Training to become an actor is an intensive process which requires curiosity, courage and commitment. You’ll learn how to prepare for rehearsal, how to rehearse and how to use independent and proactive processes to achieve your best work possible for stage and screen.
128) Slang: Australians do speak English. However, for some tourists and travelers, it can be difficult to understand the slang. Also, the links between Australian and American English were seen to be very tenuous. At least some colloquialisms in Australian English do not exist in other types of English.
129) Grand Canyon 2: Few things in the world produce such amazement as one’s first of glimpse of the Grand Canyon; it took around more than 2 billion years to create this vast wonder – in some places. 17 miles wide, largely through the relentless force of Colorado River, which runs 277 miles along its length, a mile beneath its towering rims.
130) Blue: Blue is the most popular color. Food researchers disagree when humans searched for food, they learned to avoid toxic or spoiled objects, which were often blue, black, or purple. When food dyed blue is served to study subjects, they lose appetite.
131) Radio Burst: First discovered in 2007, ‘fast radio burst’ continue to defy explanation. These cosmic chirps last a thousandth of a second. The characteristics of the radio pulses suggested that they came from galaxies billions of light-years away. However, new works points to a much closer origin-flaring star within our own galaxy.
132) Over-Packaging: The free market is extremely competitive, and companies are constantly trying to gain an edge over their rivals. Merchandising and brand image play a major role in attracting customers, but they often lead to over packaging. This is a serious problem since most packaging these days is made of plastics which are not biodegradable. Some people blame the manufacturers for their blatant disregard, while others point the finger at consumers.
133) Incentive Pay Schemes: If bonus or incentive pay schemes work so well for senior executives and bankers, why does everyone not get them? After all, many jobs involve making important decisions or taking risks. Is there anything about corporate decisions and financial risks that make these categories of work special in terms of how they need to be incentivized and rewarded?
134) Madagascar: Scientists have recommended actions the government of Madagascar’s recently elected president Andry should take to turn around the precipitous decline of biodiversity and help put Madagascar on a trajectory towards sustainable growth. Madagascar’s protected areas, some of the most important for biodiversity in the world, have suffered terribly in recent years from illegal mining, logging, and collection of threatened species for the pet trade.
135) Moon: The asteroid that slammed into the moon 3.8 billion years ago creating the Imbrium Basin may have had a diameter of at least 150 miles, according to a new estimate. The work helps explain puzzling geological features on the moon’s near side, and has implications for understanding the evolution of the early solar system.
136) Artificial Intelligence: Allowing AI’s to learn with considerably less data is important for several reasons. First, it better encapsulates the actual process of learning by forcing the system to generalize to classes it has not seen. By building in abstractions that capture the relationships between objects, this technique also reduces the potential for bias. Currently, deep-learning systems fall prey to bias arising from irrelevant features in the data they use to train.
137) Virus: The mutations may not help this version of the SARS-CoV-2 virus evade all of the cells and proteins that our immune systems use to neutralize it. Initial data from the lab suggest that the new variant is just as susceptible to our defenses as the original virus. But these genetic alterations might spell bad news for monoclonal antibody treatments against the virus.
138) The Godfather: Francis Ford Coppola is an American film director, producer and screenwriter. He was a central figure in the New Hollywood filmmaking movement of the 1960s and 1970s. Coppola’s reputation as a filmmaker was cemented with the release of The Godfather. The film revolutionized movie-making in the gangster genre, and was adored by the public and critics alike.
139) Economist & Ecologist: There is a pointless argument between economists and ecologists over which crisis is more important – the ecosphere or the economy? The materialistic answer is that their fates are interlinked. We know the natural world only by interacting with it and transforming it: nature produced us that way.
140) Quarantine: A quarantine is a restriction on the movement of people and goods which is intended to prevent the spread of disease or pests. It is often used in connection to disease and illness, preventing the movement of those who may have been exposed to a communicable disease, but do not have a confirmed medical diagnosis. It is distinct from medical isolation, in which those confirmed to be infected with a communicable disease are isolated from the healthy population.
141) Paleogenetic: Bones are rich sources of prehistoric genetic information, but not the only ones; items ranging from shed Ice Age skin cells to pine needles can contribute to the genetic record stored in dirt. Paleogeneticists have been extracting and analyzing “environmental DNA” from soil for a long time, but getting rid of non-DNA material without destroying these fragile clues is daunting.
142) Summary and Abstract: The terms summary and abstract are often used interchangeably resulting in some confusion. This problem arises because there are two distinct types of abstracts, descriptive and informative. The informative abstract is sometimes called summary; the descriptive is not. The descriptive abstract is usually only two or three sentences in length, hence it is not a summary or very informative.
143) Deaf Children: Deaf children learning a language could certainly pursue the development of listening and spoken language skills if desired, and doing so would carry much less risk knowing the child would have mastery in at least one language. If a child does not succeed in mastering either a spoken language or a sign language, we must then ask how much benefit the child derived from interventions in each language relative to the amount of time and resources dedicated to those interventions.
144) Drug Overdose Deaths: The slight decline in drug overdose deaths in 2018 coincides with Chinese regulations on the powerful opioid carfentanil, rather than the result of domestic U.S. efforts to curb the epidemic, a new analysis reveals. What many — including President Donald Trump — perceived as a decline in overdose deaths in 2018, appears to be a return to the historic exponential curve.
145) European Wildcats: European wildcats, thought to be extinct 50 years ago in the Jura mountains, have since recolonized part of their former territory. This resurgence in an area occupied by domestic cats has gone hand-in-hand with genetic crosses between the two species. A team of biologists modeled the interactions between the two species and predict that hybridization will entail the irreversible genetic replacement of wildcats.
146) X-ray: Using an X-ray laser, a research team has investigated how water heats up under extreme conditions. In the process, the scientists were able to observe water that remained liquid even at temperatures of more than 170 degrees Celsius. The investigation revealed an anomalous dynamic behavior of water, which is of fundamental importance for investigations of sensitive samples using X-ray lasers.
147) Aromatic Substance: Researchers have found a way to convert the aromatic substance vanillin into a redox-active electrolyte material for liquid batteries. The technology is an important step towards ecologically sustainable energy storage.
148) Barley Grains: University of Adelaide researchers have uncovered fundamental new information about the malting characteristics of barley grains. They say their finding could pave the way to more stable brewing processes or new malts for craft brewers. Published in the Nature publication scientific reports, the researchers discovered a new link between one of the key enzymes involved in malt production for the brewing and a specific tissue layer within the barley grain.
149). Hydrogen Fuel: The power of the sun, wind and sea may soon combine to produce clean-burning hydrogen fuel, according to researchers. The team integrated water purification technology into a new proof-of-concept design for a sea water electrolyzer, which uses an electric current to split apart the hydrogen and oxygen in water molecules.
150) Organic Molecules: New research identifies a process that might have been key in producing the first organic molecules on Earth about 4 billion years ago, before the origin of life. The process, which is similar to what might have occurred in some ancient underwater hydrothermal vents, may also have relevance to the search for life elsewhere in the universe.
151) Injury or Disease: Injury or disease that afflicts a relatively small number of brain cells causes a chain reaction that stops activity across a vast network of neural circuits, according to new research. The study may help to explain why people can suffer from temporary but severe loss of cognitive function in cases of traumatic brain injury or disease.
152) Thermometer: Researchers have discovered a brain molecule that functions as a ‘thermometer’ for the presence of others in an animal’s environment. Zebrafish ‘feel’ the presence of others via mechanosensation and water movements —which turns the brain hormone on.
153) Protein Tau: Researchers have found a novel form of the Alzheimer’s protein tau in the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord. This form of tau — known as MTBR tau — indicates what stage of Alzheimer’s a person is in and tracks with tangles of tau protein in the brain.
154) Effects of Alcohol: The evidence for the harmful effects of alcohol on brain health is compelling, but now experts have pinpointed three key time periods in life when the effects of alcohol are likely to be at their greatest.
155) Stretchable System: A stretchable system that can harvest energy from human breathing and motion for use in wearable health-monitoring devices may be possible, according to an international team of researchers.
156) Natural Networks: Neural networks are some of the most important tools in AI. So far, they run on traditional processors in the form of adaptive software, but experts are working on an alternative concept, the ‘neuromorphic computer’. In this case, neurons are not simulated by software but reconstructed in hardware components. A team of researchers has now demonstrated a new approach to such hardware – targeted magnetic waves that are generated and divided in micrometer-sized wafers.
156) Natural Networks: Neural networks are some of the most important tools in AI. So far, they run on traditional processors in the form of adaptive software, but experts are working on an alternative concept, the ‘neuromorphic computer’. In this case, neurons are not simulated by software but reconstructed in hardware components. A team of researchers has now demonstrated a new approach to such hardware – targeted magnetic waves that are generated and divided in micrometer-sized wafers.
157) Black Hole: Researchers used the Frontera supercomputer to model for the first time a black hole merger of two black holes with very different sizes (128:1). The research required seven months of constant computation. The results predict the gravitational waves such a merger would produce, as well as characteristics of the resulting merged black hole.
158) Smellicopter: A team has developed Smellicopter: an autonomous drone that uses a live antenna from a moth to navigate toward smells. Smellicopter can also sense and avoid obstacles as it travels through the air.
159) Electric Current: Almost 200 years after French physicist Jean Peltier discovered that electric current flowing through the junction of two different metals could be used to produce a heating or cooling effect, researchers say it is time to step up efforts to find new materials for the thermoelectric cooling market.
160) Planet Nine: Astronomers think planets can exist in orbits far from their star, and propose a two-step process: interactions with the star or inner planets kick it out of the inner system, and then a passing star stabilizes the orbit to keep it bound. Such a scenario could explain the hypothesized ‘Planet Nine’ in our solar system. Astronomers have now confirmed that one binary star system, HD 106906, has a planet in a bound, highly eccentric orbit.
161) Superhighway Network: Researchers have discovered a new superhighway network to travel through the Solar System much faster than was previously possible. Such routes can drive comets and asteroids near Jupiter to Neptune’s distance in under a decade and to 100 astronomical units in less than a century. They could be used to send spacecraft to the far reaches of our planetary system relatively fast, and to monitor and understand near-Earth objects that might collide with our planet.
162) Burial: Was burial of the dead practiced by Neanderthals or is it an innovation specific to our species? Researchers have demonstrated, using a variety of criteria, that a Neanderthal child was buried, probably around 41,000 years ago, at the Ferrassie site (Dordogne, France).
163) Lagerpetids: With the help of newly discovered skulls and skeletons that were unearthed in North America, Brazil, Argentina, and Madagascar in recent years, researchers have demonstrated that a group of ‘dinosaur precursors,’ called lagerpetids, are the closest relatives of pterosaurs.
164) Mice: A new study in mice finds that a high-fat diet allows cancer cells to outcompete immune cells for fuel, impairing immune function and accelerating tumor growth. Cancer cells do so by rewiring their metabolisms to increase fat consumption. Blocking this rewiring enhances anti-tumor immunity. The findings suggest new strategies to target cancer metabolism and improve immunotherapies.
165) Hidden Law of Nature: New research provides a solution for the century-and-half-old puzzle of why capillary condensation, a fundamentally microscopic phenomenon involving a few molecular layers of water, can be described reasonably well using macroscopic equations and macroscopic characteristics of bulk water. Is it a coincidence or a hidden law of nature?
166) Evolutionary Cousins: Compared to chimpanzees, our closest evolutionary cousins, humans are particularly prone to developing advanced carcinomas — the type of tumors that include prostate, breast, lung and colorectal cancers — even in the absence of known risk factors, such as genetic predisposition or tobacco use. A recent study helps explain why.
167) Memory Coding: Two new studies shed new light on how the brain encodes time and place into memories. The findings not only add to the body of fundamental research on memory, but could eventually provide the basis for new treatments to combat memory loss from conditions such as traumatic brain injury or Alzheimer’s disease.
168)Thymus: Researchers have rebuilt a human thymus, an essential organ in the immune system, using human stem cells and a bioengineered scaffold. Their work is an important step towards being able to build artificial thymi which could be used as transplants.
169) Battery: Scientists have improved a promising battery technology, creating a single-crystal, nickel-rich cathode that is harder and more efficient than before. It’s one step toward improved lithium-ion batteries that are common in electric vehicles today. Increasing nickel content in the cathode is on the drawing board of lithium-ion battery makers largely because of its relatively low cost, wide availability and low toxicity compared to other key battery materials, such as cobalt.
170) Gambling Scenario: New research has shown robots can encourage humans to take greater risks in a simulated gambling scenario than they would if there was nothing to influence their behaviors. Increasing our understanding of whether robots can affect risk- taking could have clear ethical, practical and policy implications, which this study set out to explore.